Or we look at the abundance of race times available, the fact that many men every year run faster than the women's world record in any distance I can think of. That's pretty convincing evidence about who has the advantage.
Are the running times a fact of the running programs and interest in the school systems and interest in running in general? I think that males have for many decades been more “into” running than women or in general are more serious about getting faster all of the time and beating others. Some women are more into the “group” aspect of the race than they are in beating each and every last person that they can, pushing their bodies past what they thought they were capable of – hell I rarely do that.
I think the only way to really compare this is with the elite runners – males and females that have been running and training to win for many years. But there are too many variables – even with the same coach – the coach will likely not give them the same training effort, use the same techniques with them etc . .
There is some results based evidence of something going on – Has the time gap been the same for several decades or is the time gap closing?